The soil and weather define agricultural production.
The building of the irrigation Canal Philippe Lamour in the 1950's changed the possibilities and landscape. The canal originates at the mouth of the River Rhone and extends along the Languedoc coastal plain, with branches to the valleys. The latest plans are to extend it to Barcelona.
Languedoc is the largest wine producer in France.
Other major crops are olives, rice, fruit and lavender, with significant market gardening activity.
Sheep and goats are reared in the mountainous areas, mainly for cheese production.
The coastal lagoon of Lake Thau produces large quantities of shellfish, particularly oysters and mussels.
Fishing, both inshore and further afield, is a significant industry along the coast. The largest centre is Sete.